What is Arbitration, and Is it Required in Virginia?

Arbitration is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) where the parties involved in a dispute agree to submit their disagreement to a neutral third party for final and binding resolution. Unlike a court proceeding, arbitration is a private process that is informal, efficient, and cost-effective.

In Virginia, arbitrating disputes is not always a necessary requirement, but it may be required in certain situations. In this article, we’ll explore what arbitration is, how it differs from the court process, when it’s required, and what advantages and disadvantages you can expect from this method of dispute resolution.

Understanding Arbitration

The process of arbitration starts when the parties involved agree to submit their dispute to a neutral third-party arbitrator. This arbitrator can be a person or an organization that specializes in disputes with expertise and experience in a certain field.

The arbitrator listens to both sides of the argument as each side presents their case with evidence and arguments, just as a court proceeding would. The difference is that the arbitrator’s decision, often called an "award," is final and binding.

How Does Arbitration Differ from the Court Process?

Arbitration differs from court proceedings in several significant ways.

First, arbitration provides a private and confidential forum where the parties involved can avoid the public nature of court proceedings and maintain a higher level of privacy. This is especially important for disputes which involve sensitive personal or business information.

Second, the arbitration process is often quicker and more efficient than traditional court proceedings. The parties involved can mutually agree upon an appointment of a date, time and place for the hearing. Moreover, the strict procedural rules of courtrooms are not necessary in arbitration. This flexibility allows the parties involved to resolve their dispute without the unnecessary costs and delays of lengthy court proceedings.

Lastly, arbiter’s ruling is often final and binding. In contrast, court decisions will usually be subject to the possible appeal process, which is a longer process and has higher expenses.

When is Arbitration Required in Virginia?

In Virginia, arbitration is typically not required, but it may be mandated in certain circumstances. For example, if a contract between two parties includes an arbitration clause, this means that if a dispute arises between the parties regarding that agreement, they must go through the arbitration process rather than the court system.

Additionally, courts may require that certain disputes are settled through arbitration to help manage their workload and promote efficient dispute resolution.

Also, in Virginia, some types of medical malpractice claims may be mandatorily arbitrated. This requirement is grounded in the state’s statutes governing legal disputes. The governing statute provides that whenever there are issues in dispute of fewer than six jurors, the parties involved can choose to have the issue determined by a process of binding arbitration. Resolution through arbitration can reduce court congestion and resolve a dispute more expeditiously.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Arbitration

Arbitration has several advantages over traditional court proceedings, such as speed, cost-effectiveness, and informality. The privacy of the proceedings is also of interest to many people.

One disadvantage to arbitration is that the arbitrator’s decision is usually final and binding without the appeal process. Thus, the losing party may have no further legal options after the arbitrator awards the winner.

Another possible downside is the potential for the arbitrator to show bias and make decisions that may appear to promote the interest of the party that appointed him or her. Additionally, sometimes arbitration is guarded by confidentiality agreements that could limit your ability to discuss the matter freely or to share the results of the arbitration publicly.


Arbitration is an effective way of resolving disputes that are more cost-effective and flexible than traditional court proceedings. While arbitration is not always required in Virginia, some types of disputes mandate it. The private nature of the proceedings, the informality of the process, and the speed of resolving a dispute are the benefits that can attract parties. However, there are still some risks in arbitration, such as the finality of the decision, potential bias, and limited opportunities for appeal.

Therefore, you should always carefully consider your options and consult with a qualified attorney to determine if arbitration is the right choice for your dispute.

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